الجمعة، 31 أكتوبر، 2014

What is the three-way match?

What is the three-way match?
In accounting, the three-way match refers to a procedure used when processing an invoice received from a vendor or supplier. The purpose of the three-way match is to avoid paying incorrect and perhaps fraudulent invoices.

Three-way refers to the three documents involved:


1.      Vendor's invoice which was received and will become part of an organization's accounts payable if approved.


2.      Purchase order that was prepared by the organization.


3.      Receiving report that was prepared by the organization.


Match refers to the comparison of the quantities, price per unit, terms, etc. appearing on the vendor's invoice to the information on the purchase order and to the quantities actually received.

After the vendor's invoice has been validated by the three-way match, it can be further processed for payment.

The three-way match is an important step in safeguarding an organization's assets.

الخميس، 30 أكتوبر، 2014

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There are two main methods of accounting (or bookkeeping):
  • Accrual method
  • Cash method
The accrual method of accounting is the preferred method because it provides:
  1. a more complete reporting of the company's assets, liabilities, and stockholders' equity at the end of an accounting period, and
  2. a more realistic reporting of a company's revenues, expenses, and net income for a specific time interval such as a month, quarter or year.
As a result, US GAAP requires most corporations to use the accrual method of accounting.
The following table compares the accrual and cash methods of accounting:
Note: Some small companies may be allowed to use the cash method of accounting and in turn may experience an income tax benefit. Since our website does not provide income tax information, you should seek tax advice from a tax professional or from IRS.gov.


Revenues and Receivables
Under the accrual method, revenues are to be reported in the accounting period in which they are earned (which may be different from the period in which the money is received).
To illustrate the reporting of revenues under the accrual method, let's assume that the hypothetical business Servco provides a service to a customer on December 27. Servco prepares a sales invoice for the agreed upon amount of $1,000. The invoice is dated December 27 and states that the amount is due in 30 days.
Under the accrual method, on December 27 Servco:
  • has earned revenue of $1,000, and
  • has earned a receivable of $1,000.
If Servco uses accounting software to prepare the invoice, the following will be recorded automatically as of December 27:
  • the income statement account Service Revenues will be increased by $1,000, and
  • the asset Accounts Receivable will be increased by $1,000
In addition to updating the general ledger accounts (which are used in preparing the financial statements), the software will update and store the customer's information for generating an aging of accounts receivable and a statement of each customer's activity.
Expenses and Payables
Under the accrual method, expenses should be reported on the income statement in the period in which they best match with the revenues. If a cause and effect relationship is not obvious, the expense should be reported on the income statement when the cost is used up or expires. In any event, the payment of cash is not the primary factor for determining the accounting period in which an expense is reported on the income statement.
To illustrate, let's assume that Servco uses a temporary help agency at a cost of $200 in order to assist in earning revenues on December 27. The invoice from the temp agency is received on December 27, but it will not be paid until January 4.
Under the accrual method, on December 27 Servco:
  • has incurred an expense of $200, and
  • has incurred a liability of $200.
If accounting software is used to record the temp agency invoice, the following will occur automatically as of December 27:
  • the income statement account Temporary Help Expense will be increased by $200, and
  • the liability Accounts Payable will be increased by $200.
When Servco issues its check on January 4:
  • the asset Cash will be decreased by $200, and
  • the liability Accounts Payable will be decreased by $200.
Net Income
If Servco had only the two transactions described above, its net income under the accrual method for the day of December 27 will consist of the following:
  • Earned revenue of $1,000
  • Incurred an expense of $200
  • Earned a net income of $800 ($1,000 of revenues minus $200 of expenses).
[The cash method of accounting would have reported a much different picture:
    • No revenue, expense or net income would have been reported on the December income statement.
    • The revenues of $1,000 might be reported in February if the customer paid in 35 days.
    • The expense of $200 will be reported in January when Servco pays the temp agency.]
Obviously, the accrual method does a better job of reporting what occurred on December 27, the date that Servco actually provided the services and incurred the expense.


الأربعاء، 29 أكتوبر، 2014

طرق المحاسبة والسجلات المساعدة

طرق المحاسبة والسجلات المساعدة

للتحميل
http://a7lashare.com/download/0551c59414.html

تطبيقات محاسبيه عمليه

تطبيقات محاسبيه عمليه
للتحميل
http://a7lashare.com/download/c1e1f3de94.html

Bookkeeping: Past and Present مقال عن امساك الحسابات قديما وحديثا

Bookkeeping: Past and Present

Bookkeeping in the Old Days

Prior to computers and software, the bookkeeping for small businesses usually began by writing entries intojournals. Journals were defined as the books of original entry. In order to reduce the amount of writing in a general journal, special journals or daybooks were introduced. The special or specialized journals consisted of a sales journal, purchases journal, cash receipts journal, and cash payments journal.
The company's transactions were written in the journals in date order. Later, the amounts in the journals would be posted to the designated accounts located in the general ledger. Examples of accounts include Sales, Rent Expense, Wages Expense, Cash, Loans Payable, etc. Each account's balance had to be calculated and the account balances were used in the company's financial statements. In addition to the general ledger, a company may have had subsidiary ledgers for accounts such as Accounts Receivable.
Handwriting the many transactions into journals, rewriting the amounts in the accounts, and manually calculating the account balances would likely result in some incorrect amounts. To determine whether errors had occurred, the bookkeeper prepared a trial balance. A trial balance is an internal report that lists 1) each account name, and 2) each account's balance in the appropriate debit column or credit column. If the total of the debit column did not equal the total of the credit column, there was at least one error occurring somewhere between the journal entry and the trial balance. Finding the one or more errors often meant spending hours retracing the entries and postings.
After locating and correcting the errors the bookkeeping phase was completed and the accounting phase began. It began with an accountant preparing adjusting entries so that the accounts reflected the accrual basis of accounting. Adjusting entries were necessary for the following reasons:
  • additional revenues and assets may have been earned but were not recorded
  • additional expenses and liabilities may have been incurred but were not recorded
  • some of the amounts that had been recorded by the bookkeeper may have been prepayments which are no longer prepaid
  • depreciation and other non-routine adjustments needed to be computed and recorded
After all of the adjustments were made, the accountant presented the adjusted account balances in the form of financial statements.
After each year's financial statements were completed, closing entries were needed. The purpose of closing entries is to get the balances in all of the income statement accounts (revenues, expenses) to be zero before the start of the new accounting year. The net amount of the income statement account balances would ultimately be transferred to the proprietor's capital account or to the stockholders' retained earnings account.

Bookkeeping Today

The electronic speed of computers and accounting software gives the appearance that many of the bookkeeping and accounting tasks have been eliminated or are occurring simultaneously. For example, the preparation of a sales invoice will automatically update the relevant general ledger accounts (Sales, Accounts Receivable, Inventory, Cost of Goods Sold), update the customer's detailed information, and store the information for the financial statements as well as other reports.
The accounting software has been written so that every transaction must have the debit amounts equal to the credit amounts. The electronic accuracy also eliminates the errors that had occurred when amounts were manually written, rewritten and calculated. As a result, the debits will always equal the credits and the trial balance will always be in balance. No longer will hours be spent looking for errors that occurred in a manual system.
CAUTION: While the accounting software is amazingly fast and accurate in processing the information that is entered, the software is unable to detect whether some transactions have been omitted, have been entered twice, or if incorrect accounts were used. Fraudulent transactions and amounts could also be entered if a company fails to have internal controls.
After the sales invoices, vendor invoices, payroll and other transactions have been processed for each accounting period, some adjusting entries are still required. The adjusting entries will involve:
  • revenues and assets that were earned, but not yet entered into the software
  • expenses and liabilities that were incurred, but not yet entered into the software
  • prepayments that are no longer prepaid
  • recording depreciation expense, bad debts expense, etc.
The adjusting entries will require a person to determine the amounts and the accounts. Without adjusting entries the accounting software will be producing incomplete, inaccurate, and perhaps misleading financial statements.
After the financial statements for the year are released, the software will transfer the balances from the income statement accounts to the sole proprietor's capital account or to the stockholders' retained earnings account. This allows for the following year's income statement accounts to begin with zero balances. (The balance sheet accounts are not closed as their balances are carried forward to the next accounting year.)

Recording Transactions

Bookkeeping (and accounting) involves the recording of a company's financial transactions. The transactions will have to be identified, approved, sorted and stored in a manner so they can be retrieved and presented in the company's financial statements and other reports.
Here are a few examples of some of a company's financial transactions:
  • The purchase of supplies with cash.
  • The purchase of merchandise on credit.
  • The sale of merchandise on credit.
  • Rent for the business office.
  • Salaries and wages earned by employees.
  • Buying equipment for the office.
  • Borrowing money from a bank.
The transactions will be sorted into perhaps hundreds of accounts including Cash, Accounts Receivable, Loans Payable, Accounts Payable, Sales, Rent Expense, Salaries Expense, Wages Expense Dept 1, Wages Expense Dept 2, etc. The amounts in each of the accounts will be reported on the company's financial statements in detail or in summary form.
With hundreds of accounts and perhaps thousands of transactions, it is clear that once a person learns the accounting software there will be efficiencies and better information available for managing a business.

الاثنين، 13 أكتوبر، 2014

مكتبة كتب محاسبيه واداريه وضريبيه


مسلسل

اسم الكتــــاب

1
مقدمة لتطبيقات الحاسب الآلي
2
رياضيات تخصصية
3
محاسبة مالية 1
4
محاسبة مالية 2
5
محاسبة حكومية
6
دراسة السوق
7
سلوك المشترين
8
إدارة مخازن
9
مقدمة في الإحصاء
10
مبادئ إدارة الأعمال
11
سكرتارية 1
12مهارات في الطباعة العربية
13تقنية المكاتب
14إدارة فندقية
15أساسيات الفندقة
16استخدام الحاسب الآلي في الفندقة (1)
17مراسلات و تقارير فندقية
18إدارة الإشراف الداخلي
19المهارات الإشرافية الفندقية
20أعمال الوكالات السياحية
21جغرافية السياحة والطيران
22تعرفة وأسعار تذاكر الطيران
23حجز خدمات سياحية
24حسابات الوكالات
25نظم حجز آلي (1)
26أنظمة وإجراءات المخزون
27إدارة المخزون
28الأمن والسلامة
29محاسبة شركات الأشخاص
30محاسبة شركات الأموال
31محاسبة الزكاة و الدخل
32المحاسبة في المنشات المالية
33تقارير مالية باللغة الإنجليزية
34محاسبة التكاليف
35مراجعة و مراقبة داخلية
36استخدام الحاسب الآلي في المحاسبة
37الجداول الإلكترونية المتخصصة
38تخطيط المبيعات
39اتصال سوقي
40منافذ التوزيع
41مهارات عرض المنتجات
42مهارات عرض المنتجات(عملى)
43مشكلات البيع
44مشكلات البيع(عملية)
45تقارير السوق
46تطبيقات سوقية على الحاسب
47خدمات العملاء
48مقدمة في الاقتصاد
49تطبيقات الحاسب الآلي
50مهارات في الطباعة الإنجليزية
51مراسلات وتقارير
52تطبيقات مستودعية بالحاسب
53الرقابة والتقارير المستودعية
54إدارة الوقت
55تنظيم المخازن
56الأمن الفندقي و السلامة
57عمليات  المكاتب الأمامية
58محاسبة فندقية
59نظم ولوائح فندقية
60تسويق فندقي
61استخدام الحاسب الآلي في الفندقة (2)
62نظم حجز آلي (2)
63تسويق سياحي
64إصدار تذاكر
65نظم ولوائح سياحية
66فن البيع الهاتفي
67نظام آياتا
68الدليل لبرنامج مساعد محاسب
69مبادئ المحاسبة-1الحقيقبة الرابعة
70مبادئ المحاسبة-1الحقيبة الأولى
71تدقيق السجلات – الحقيبة الرابعة
72مبادئ المحاسبة-2 – الحقيبة الثالثة - عملى
73مبادئ المحاسبة-2 – الحقيبة الثالثة
74الموازنات وإعداد التقارير
75مبادئ المحاسبة-2 – الحقيبة الثالثة - المدرب
76مبادئ المحاسبة-2 – الحقيبة الثالثة